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ECTRIMS 2022 | Imaging techniques to monitor remyelination in MS

Cristina Granziera, MD, PhD, University Hospital of Basel, Basel, Switzerland, discusses advances in imaging techniques and novel ways of monitoring demyelination and remyelination in multiple sclerosis (MS). Various magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) techniques allow us to image myelin properties in MS. Different types of contrasts and measures enable the identification of either remyelinated lesions or changes in the lesions over time. For instance, studies have used T1 relaxometry to identify remyelinated lesions in vivo, and post-mortem and quantitative susceptibility mapping have identified new phenotypes of remyelinated lesions for the first time. Additionally, measures to monitor myelin changes over time include magnetization transfer ratio, myelin water fraction as well as diffusion measures. PET tracers have also been used to image remyelination, and recent studies have highlighted the enormous heterogeneity of remyelination in MS patients. This interview took place at the European Committee for Treatment and Research in Multiple Sclerosis (ECTRIMS) Congress 2022 in Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

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