The existence of sex differences in the association between risk factors and incident stroke, including stroke subtypes, brings about questions regarding the underlying mechanisms that give rise to these differences. Sanne Peters, PhD, George Institute for Global Health, Imperial College London, London, UK, suggests differences in biological mechanisms and healthcare-related factors may explain the stronger association between certain risk factors and incidence of stroke in women. For example, Dr Peters explains that sex differences in obesity, which can lead to diabetes, may explain the stronger association between diabetes and the risk of acute ischemic stroke in women. Women may also perceive themselves to be at lower risk of stroke compared to men – a perception potentially shared by physicians too. Therefore, women may be disadvantaged by less intensive treatment regimens compared to men. This interview took place at the European Stroke Organisation Conference (ESOC), 2021.