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EAN 2021 | Differentiating NMOSD and MS

Nikolaos Grigoriadis, MD, PhD, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece, discusses challenges in the diagnosis of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) and multiple sclerosis (MS); lack of identifiable disease progression cannot be used to differentiate between NMOSD and MS, due to rare instances of identifiable slow progression in NMOSD, which may be mistaken for progressive MS, leading to misdiagnosis. Biomarkers, such as anti-Aquaporin-4 antibodies, have been shown to be vital for the correct diagnosis of NMO-spectrum disorders, as these are not present in MS. This illustrates the importance of clinical examination and patient follow-up for safe diagnosis. This interview took place during the European Academy of Neurology 2021 congress.